Institute of Education, University of London and University of Bath
This paper starts from a problem that is perhaps better expressed as a contradiction. On the one hand ‘Knowledge’ has undoubtedly become the major organizing category in the educational policies of international organisations and many national governments. Global similarities are increasingly apparent -whether they are expressed with reference to knowledge itself, to the knowledge society, to knowledge workers or The Knowledge Promotion (http://www.utdanningsdirektoratet.no/templates /udir/TM_Artikkel.aspx?id=2376) as the recent reforms of Norwegian secondary education are referred
On the other hand the category ‘knowledge’ appears to be used in an almost entirely rhetorical way; the meaning of knowledge is at best implicit and at worst virtually empty of content. One consequence is that such policies deny or disregard the idea that access to knowledge in the strong sense that involves its claims to reliability is central to the whole purpose of education.